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<nettime> Article by Karl Grossman .

Story on Titan IV
(Published on August 20, 1998 in the Orlando Weekly)

Article by Karl Grossman, investigative journalist, professor of journalism
at the State University of New York/College at Old Westbury and author of
"The Wrong Stuff: The Space Program's Nuclear Threat To Our Planet" (Common
Courage Press, 1997). He is the writer/narrator of the TV documentary "Nukes
In Space: The Nuclearization and Weaponization of the Heavens" available
from EnviroVideo at 1-800-ECO-TV46.

An expanded version of the below article by Karl Grossman is posted at:

Reliable. That's what NASA claimed last year about the Titan 4 rocket to be
used to loft the Cassini space probe with 72.3 pounds of plutonium dioxide,
more deadly plutonium than ever put on a space device. The fiery August 12
explosion on launch of an identical Titan 4 rocket, following the 1993
explosion in California of yet another Titan 4 rocket, has given lie to the
NASA claim. There have now been two catastrophic accidents in the 25 Titan 4
launches. That's a one-in-12 severe accident rate. Reliable? If you knew
your Chevy or Honda had a one-in-12 likelihood of blowing up upon starting
off, you would not take that ride.

But here is the U.S. government insisting that a volatile rocket be shot up
over the heads of the people of Florida carrying chemical and/or nuclear
poisons. And it still totally unclear what poisons were dispersed in the
most recent Titan 4 explosion. Government authorities are demanding people
stay away from the debris but not being specific about what the debris

The August 12 Titan 4 explosion demonstrated that opponents of the Cassini
mission were absolutely right: there was a high probability of the Titan 4
that lofted Cassini blowing up on launch and showering Florida with
plutonium. Space accidents cost lots of money. Some reports price the spy
satellite blasted to smithereens on August 12 at $1.3 billion. The spy
satellite destroyed in the 1993 Titan 4 launch explosion at Vandenberg Air
Force Base in California was valued at $800 million. And then there's the
cost of Lockheed Martin's Titan 4 rockets.

But more important is the massive loss of life that will occur as mishaps
inevitably continue in the space program if it is not de-nuclearized and
de-weaponized. Last Tuesday August 18, 1998 marked exactly a year before the
day when NASA intends to have Cassini conduct an extremely dangerous "flyby"
of Earth.

On August 18, 1999 unless NASA can be stopped, it plans to have the probe
and its 72.3 pounds of plutonium do a "slingshot maneuver" of Earth. NASA
wants to use the Earth's gravity to increase the velocity of Cassini so it
can reach its final destination of Saturn.

Cassini is supposed to come flying in at 42,300 miles per hour just 496
miles overhead. If there is a rocket misfire or other malfunction and the
probe makes what NASA terms an "inadverent reentry" into the 75-mile high
Earth atmosphere, it will break up and plutonium rain down, admits NASA in
its "Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini Mission." If that
happens, "five billion of the estimated 7 to 8 billion world population at
the time," says the statement, "could receive 99 percent or more of the
radiation exposure."

A "Safety Evaluation Report" for the Cassini mission done for The White
House by the U.S. government's Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel that
included NASA just obtained by Dr. Earl Budin, professor of radiology at
UCLA, says such a Cassini "flyby" accident would cause "several tens of
thousands of latent cancer fatalities worldwide." Independent scientists say
casualties could be much higher hundreds of thousands or millions dying.

A major effort is underway to get NASA to redirect the Cassini probe to the
Sun to be consumed rather than risk such a loss of life on Earth in a
"flyby" accident. But if NASA can't be stopped and the Cassini "flyby" goes
ahead and works there is still much more nuclear danger ahead. The General
Accounting Office in a May 1998 report entitled "Space Exploration: Power
Sources for Deep Space Probes" says: "NASA is currently studying eight
future space missions between 2000 and 2015 that will likely use
nuclear-fueled electric generators."

These nuclear shots would be launched from Florida with the Titan 4 as a
principle delivery vehicle. NASA began a shift to using the Titan 4 for its
nuclear missions in the wake of the 1986 Challenger accident -- the next
mission of the ill-fated Challenger was to loft a plutonium-fueled space

Pressure from Lockheed Martin, which not only manufactures the Titan 4 but
the plutonium systems, the nuclear-boosting U.S. Department of Energy and
the national nuclear labs have much to do with why NASA insists on the
life-threatening use of nuclear power on space devices. Then there is the
military connection. The U.S. military is seeking to deploy spaceborne
weaponry especially lasers. As the 1996 Air Force Report "New World Vistas:
Air and Space Power for the 21st Century" states: "In the next two decades,
new technologies will allow the fielding of space-based weapons of
devastating effectiveness." But these weapons need large amounts of power,
stresses "New World Vistas," going on: "A natural technology to enable high
power is nuclear power in space."

Only modest amounts of electricity are produced by plutonium on space probes
745 watts on the Cassini mission to power instruments. This could be
generated by safe, solar photovoltaic cells even far from the sun. Indeed,
the European Space Agency is readying its Rosetta space probe to fly past
the orbit of Jupiter to rendezvous with a comet and using solar energy to
generate 500 watts instead of plutonium.

NASA, after seeing its budget drop with the end of the Apollo missions to
the moon, got ever tighter with the Pentagon. The Pentagon would like to
deploy weaponry powered by nuclear systems in space and this is another
reason why NASA, seeking to stay in step with the military, insists on
nuclear power on in space even if it kills us.

What can you do? Pick up your telephone right now and call Bruce Gagnon,
coordinator of the Global Network Against Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space
at (352) 337-9274 and join the challenge to end this madness. Get involved
in the space work in Florida of the Florida Coalition For Peace & Justice.
Call the coalition (352) 468-3295. Log onto the Stop Cassini Earth Flyby web
site at You'll find petitions at the
site and recommendations of where you can direct your protests.

The space program involves risks. Accidents will happen. But by including
nuclear power and moving to space weaponry, the risks are greatly expanded
to include the lives of people all over the world.

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