|Eveline Lubbers on Thu, 11 Oct 2001 11:20:01 +0200 (CEST)|
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|[Nettime-nl] 'Total Television' and Future Wars|
War reportage and the military-information society een recente pagina met een hele lange lijst referenties naar studies over moderne media en oorlogsverslaggeving, de rol van intelligence en het CCN-effect. Veel over de Golf oorlog en de Balkan. Ik heb de lange lijst met verwijzingen ook maar overgenomen, ook al doen de links het niet, (hoop dat de layout wel een beetje in stand blijft) omdat het zo aansluit op de diskuzz hier (en omdat ik zelf meteen zin van kreeg om *alles* te gaan lezen, ander keertje maar.) eveline http://www.disinfo.com/pages/article/id1298/pg3/ war reportage and the military-information society by Alex Burns (email@example.com) - June. 12, 2001 "'Total Television' and Future Wars" Total Television was not the result of Vietnam, Engelhardt crucially stated, but was the result of "certain mesmeric moments in the eighties" such as the Iran Hostage Crisis (1979-81), Chernobyl (1986), and the Challenger disaster (1986), which created a hypnoid effect on mass audiences.  Total Television could only occur because of wider geo-economic factors (the erosion of cable network dominance, requiring advertising and sponsorship) and global-oriented military/media planning ("the Gulf War as outside media production).  "Hotel Warrior" journalists in Dharam were likened to the 1980s television programs that merchandised children's toys, supported by an unspoken U.S. doctrine of inherent moral righteousness  (the Ellulian trigger for immersive propaganda). The networks' Standards and Practices Department harkened back to the Hayes Office and Breen Production Code,  whilst Generals and war planners borrowed 'New Hollywood' acting and studio techniques,  playing the archetype of Victorious General and In-Control Spokesperson. And each military news conference reminded the audience that the conflict was unfolding "on schedule": "the public was constantly assured by the war's supporters that it would be clean, manageable, foreseeable, endable—in short, a program."  The meshing of media, sponsorship and low production values  laid the 'production blueprint' for Reality TV. Changes in war reportage since the Vietnam War are a microcosm of the perception management that is embedded within society. Each conflict must be approached anew, with a detached appreciation of its historical factors and social circumstances, not just banal critiques of nefarious institutions. Flaws in the news-gathering process result from multiple and ever-shifting factors that prevailing ideological-driven critiques fail to acknowledge. Journalists must practice self-awareness and ask the utilitarian question of whose ends they are 'serving.' Only then will the media become a real social antenna, and the journalists an 'early warning system'  for the future wars to come. References: Mark D. Alleyne. News Revolution: Political and Economic Decisions about Global Information. London: Macmillan, 1997. Alleyne outlines the co-evolution of global news media, diplomacy, geo-economics and rogue governments, with a focus on policy-making. A lucid study that highlights the complexity of institutional structures, unlike many existing cultural/media studies critiques. Carolina Acosta-Alzuru and Elizabeth P. Lester Rousahanzamir. "A War By Any Other Name: A Textual Analysis of The Falklands/Malvinas War Coverage in U.S. and Latin American Newspapers." In Abbas Malek and Anandam P. Kavoori (ed.). The Global Dynamics of News. Stamford, CN: Ablex Publishing, 2000. 95-119. The authors examine four "newspapers of record" and discover that reportage in each publication is biased by unconscious acceptance of the country's foreign policy. Ken Auletta. "The Lost Tycoon." The New Yorker Magazine. April 23 and 30, 2001. 138-163. Auletta's profile of CNN founder Ted Turner focuses on the skirmishes with Gerald Levin during the AOL/Time-Warner merger. Also includes details about CNN's Gulf War coverage, "the CNN Effect", and how Turner's corporate philanthropy has been used to dictate United Nations and nuclear roll-back initiatives. Col. John B. Alexander (ret). Future War: Non-Lethal Weapons in Twenty-First Century Warfare. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. Alexander developed the concept of Non-Lethal Defence at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and he has briefed members of the U.S. Congress, NATO, the National Security Council and the Director of Central Intelligence. This is the most authoritative book for a general readership on the topic, discussing geopolitical scenarios, military and law enforcement applications, perception management, operations-other-than-war, and how the media's 'CNN Effect' has changed both war reportage and military command-and-control structures. David Barsamian. "Liberating The Mind from Orthodoxies: An Interview with Noam Chomsky." Z Magazine (May 2001), 32-40. Noam Chomsky covers the connection between current geopolitical issues, propaganda, and social activism. Bruce D. Berkowitz and Allan E. Goodman. Best Truth: Intelligence in the Information Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. The authors argue for a shift, within the intelligence community, from a culture of secrecy (Cold War) to a culture of wisdom (post-Cold War). In-depth analysis of the geopolitical complexities of intelligence gathering and existing institutions. Howard Bloom. "The Puppets of Pandemonium: Sleaze and Sloth in the Media Elite." In Russ Kick (ed.). You Are Being Lied To. New York: Disinfo Books/RSUB, 2001. 29-38. Howard Bloom critiques journalists' "herd-like behaviour" and uses several cases from the Israeli/PLO conflict to illustrate his hypothesis. Tom Engelhardt. "The Gulf War As Total Television 5/11/92." In Victor Navasky and Katrina Vanden Heuvel (ed.). The Best of The Nation. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2000. 148-155. Engelhardt examines the Gulf War as a 'New Hollywood' style production, resulting from wider geo-economic factors. Herbert J. Gans. "Multiperspectival News." In Elliot D. Cohen (ed.). Philosophical Issues in Journalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 190-204. Gans' 'multiperspectival' model contended that reportage approaching objectivity might be possible if multiple viewpoints are included. Flawed by a nationalist emphasis, some of Gans' ideas on "bottom-up" reportage are evident on Internet sites like Slashdot and Plastic. Karl Grossman. "Space Corps: The Dangerous Business of Making The Heavens A War Zone." Covert Action Quarterly, (No. 70) April-June 2001, 26-33. Grossman's coverage of the US Air Force's push for a Space Corps highlights why the media is uninformed about many aspects of defense policy. Includes discussion of U.S. President George W. Bush's "National Defence Shield" is more important as a gesture in the defence realm, rather than if it is actually technically feasible. Karim H. Karim. "Covering The South Caucasus and Bosnian Conflicts: Or How The Jihad Model Appears and Disappears." In Abbas Malek and Anandam P. Kavoori (ed.). The Global Dynamics of News. Stamford, CN: Ablex Publishing, 2000. 177-195. Karim outlines how Northern journalists rely on a 'Jihad Model' to frame their coverage of internecine religious conflicts that involve Muslims. He contends that this biases reportage, and that religious conflicts result from complex historical factors. Michael T. Klare. "The New Geography of Conflict." Foreign Affairs. May-June 2001. 49-61. Klare offers a convincing thesis that resource shortages will re-define the parameters of 21st Century conflicts. He predicts a growth in flashpoints and operations-other-than-war. This is a summary of Klare's book Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. London: Metropolitan Books, 2001. Michael Krepon. "Lost In Space: The Misguided Drive Toward Anti-satellite Weapons." Foreign Affairs. May-June 2001. 2-8. Krepon examines why the media overlooked Donald Rumfield's defence studies, and how "National Defense Shield" rhetoric may ignite flash-points and hot-spots. Marshall McLuhan. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Boston, MA: MIT Press, 1999 . Although dated by recent advances in communications theory, McLuhan's research covers important ground concerning how contemporary warfare is fought, via the media, in the symbolic realm. Susan D. Moeller. Compassion Fatigue: How The Media Sell Disease, Famine, War and Death. London and New York: Routledge, 1999. Moeller draws on an extensive collection of media interviews and press documentation to reveal how post-Taylorist management, environmental pressures and the rise of editorial formulae have affected international relations and war reportage. Moeller contends, unlike other media scholars, that journalists are self-aware of ideological factors in the news-gathering process, and that their flaws are more complex than ideological-based critiques would suggest. An important and overlooked book. Frank Morales. "Welcome to the Free World." Covert Action Quarterly, (No. 70) April-June 2001, 6-11. Morales offers an emotional perspective on Non-Lethal Defence, countering Col. Alexander's assessment, and warning of law enforcement misuse. Morales is especially concerned with the growth of private security forces, and his perception that political dissent is being redefined in the corporate sphere as violent terrorist activity. John Naisbitt, Nana Naisbitt, and Douglas Philips. High Tech High Touch: Technology and Our Search for Meaning. New York: Broadway Books, 1999. A 'trends study' about the convergence of technology and the perennial search for 'higher actualisation'. Notable for its chapter on the 'Military-Nintendo Complex'. Michael Parenti. "The Media And Their Atrocities." In Russ Kick (ed.). You Are Being Lied To. New York: Disinfo Books/RSUB, 2001. 51-55. Parenti is one of the most outspoken critics of NATO's air-bombing campaign on Yugoslavia, and he examines how the Western media shaped their portrayal of the conflict. Some interesting examples of 'loaded language' are included. Chris Paterson. "Global Battlefields." In Oliver Boyd-Barrett and Terhi Rantanen (ed.). The Globalization of News. London: Sage Publications, 1998. 79-103. Paterson details how media organizations and post-Taylorist management techniques affect reportage, and suggests that geo-economics is a new battlefield. Douglas Rushkoff. Coercion: Why We Listen To What 'They' Say. New York: Riverhead Books, 1999. Rushkoff's study of perception management techniques in society includes a brief discussion on Hill & Knowlton's pro-Kuwaiti campaign during the Gulf War. Philip Seib. Headline Diplomacy: How News Media Affects Foreign Policy. Westport, CN: Praeger, 1997. Philip Seib is Lucius W. Nieman Professor of Journalism at Marquette University. He discusses the intertwining of media, foreign policy, and the pressures of 'real-time' reportage in Going Live: Getting the News Right in a Real-Time, Online World (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000). McKenzie Wark. Virtual Geography: Living With Global Media Events. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1994. Wark examines how journalists are affected by the events that they cover, examining the Persian Gulf War (1991), the U.S Stock Crash (1987) and the Tiananmen Square protests (1989). Ken Wilber. A Theory of Everything: An Integral Model for Business, Politics, Science, and Spirituality. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications, 2000. This book is an overview of Ken Wilber's "all levels, all quadrants" schema and Don Beck and Chris Cowan's Spiral Dynamics® model of dynamic biopsychosocial systems development (which has been applied in business, education, geopolitics and sports). Wilber discusses theoretical advances in "integral" political models, and the geopolitical theories of Francis Fukuyama, Samuel P. Huntington and Thomas Friedman. Useful for grasping the complexity of human motivations, values and clashing worldviews. Colonel Paul E. Vallely and Major. Michael A. Aquino. "From PYOP to MindWar: The Psychology of Victory." In. William Cooper. Behold a Pale Horse. Sedona, AZ: Light Technology Publications, 1991. 368-380. Widely circulated as samizdat, Vallely and Aquino's article examines the Vietnam Syndrome, and propose various media strategies. Many of the techniques that were first outlined here were used, without the authors' approval, for Gulf War media and perception management. ______________________________________________________ * Verspreid via nettime-nl. 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